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Math
Statistics
Hypothesis Testing
CH. 14 Statistics
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Terms in this set (50)
Which of the following is a statistical procedure used to test hypotheses about the discrepancy between the observed and expected frequencies in two or more nominal categories?
chi-square test
Which of the following measures of effect size can be reported with a 3 × 4 chi-square test for independence?
Cramer's V
Which of the following is recorded using a chi-square goodness-of-fit test and a chi-square test for independence?
both B and C
The interpretation of a 2 × 2 chi-square test for independence is similar to what other type of statistical test?
phi correlation coefficient
What is a key distinction between parametric tests and nonparametric tests in terms of scales of measurement?
Parametric tests are used for interval and ratio data, whereas nonparametric tests are used for nominal and ordinal data.
A researcher reports the following results for a chi-square goodness-of-fit test: (1) = 5.386, p < .05 (V = .22). How many groups were observed?
2
A researcher conducts a chi-square goodness-of-fit test in which k = 5. What is the critical value for this test at a .05 level of significance?
9.49
A researcher computes a 4 × 6 chi-square test for independence with a sample of 120 participants, with = 14.79. What is the effect size for this result?
.20
A chi-square goodness-of-fit test shows that the frequencies observed equal those that were expected. Hence, the value of the test statistic is ______.
equal to 0
A researcher asks participants to taste each of three meals and to choose the one they like best. The same foods are in each meal, expect for the calorie total of the meal (which is low, moderate, or high calorie). Based on the observed frequencies given below, what is an appropriate conclusion for this test at a .05 level of significance?
Participants liked the high calorie meal more than was expected.
A researcher selects a sample of 110 participants and computes the following phi correlation coefficient: = .31. What is the value of ?
10.57
One way a researcher can correct for having expected frequencies smaller than five is to increase the levels of the categorical variable such that the number of levels ______.
is greater than four
A researcher computes a 3 × 4 chi-square test for independence with a sample of 50 participants, with = 8.43. What is the effect size for this result?
.29
What is the key assumption for a chi-square goodness-of-fit test?
Observed frequencies are independently recorded in each cell.
The degrees of freedom for a chi-square goodness-of-fit test are ______.
k - 1
Which of the following is an appropriate measure of effect size for a 2 × 2 chi-square test for independence?
all of these
We compute the frequency expected in each category using known ______ stated in the null hypothesis.
proportions
A researcher computes a 2 × 2 chi-square test for independence. What is the critical value for this test at a .05 level of significance?
3.84
Which of the following is an example of a nonparametric test?
chi-square test
A researcher compares the frequency of participants who sleep primarily on their stomach, back, or side during the night. What is the critical value for a chi-square goodness-of-fit test at a .05 level of significance?
5.99
The degrees of freedom for a chi-square test for independence test are ______
...
A researcher conducts a chi-square goodness-of-fit test in which k = 2 and = 3.98. What is the decision for this test at a .05 level of significance?
reject the null hypothesis
Many nonparametric tests are called ______ because they make no assumptions regarding the shape of the distribution in the population.
distribution-free tests
A researcher computes a 2 × 3 chi-square test for independence. What is the critical value for this test at a .05 level of significance?
5.99
A researcher computes a 4 × 4 chi-square test for independence and estimates the following effect size: V = .36. This effect size is ______.
large
A researcher tests whether levels of education and income levels are related. In this study, he observes the following frequencies. If he computes a chi-square test for independence at a .05 level of significance, then what is the decision for this test?
Education and income level are related.
A researcher records the frequency of participants selecting one of four new slogans for an advertising campaign. If it was expected that among 200 people polled there would be no preference for any one slogan, then what was the expected frequency for each slogan?
50 people
To compute the expected frequencies for a chi-square test for independence, we use which of the following formulas?
(row total × column total)/grand total
A chi-square goodness-of-fit test leads to a decision to retain the null hypothesis. Which of the following correctly explains this decision?
Frequencies observed were statistically similar to the frequencies expected at each level of the categorical variable.
If the expected frequencies equal to observed frequencies for a chi-square test for independence, what do we conclude?
the test statistic value is equal to 0
A researcher conducts a chi-square goodness-of-fit test in which k = 3 and = 4.32. What is the decision for this test at a .05 level of significance?
retain the null hypothesis
Which of the following is a key assumption for a chi-square goodness-of-fit test?
The observed frequencies are independently recorded in each cell.
To summarize the chi-square goodness-of-fit test, which of the following is reported?
all of these
The observed frequencies can be summarized ______.
all of these
Which of the following is an example of a parametric test?
all of these
A researcher conducts two chi-square tests. The 2 × 2 chi-square was = 3.82. The 2 × 3 chi-square was = 5.02. Which chi-square test resulted in a decision to reject the null hypothesis at a .05 level of significance?
None; both chi-square tests result in a decision to retain the null hypothesis.
To appropriately interpret the chi-square goodness-of-fit test, it is necessary to compare differences ______ of the categorical variable.
at each level
As a general rule, the larger the degrees of freedom for a chi-square test, ______.
the larger the critical value will be
A chi-square goodness-of-fit test shows that the frequencies observed fit well with those that were expected. Hence, the decision was to ______.
retain the null hypothesis
A researcher computes a 3 × 5 chi-square test for independence. What are the degrees of freedom for this test?
8
A researcher can correct for having expected frequencies smaller than five by ______.
both A and B
When computing a chi-square goodness-of-fit test, the frequency expected in a given cell should never be less than ______.
five
A researcher conducts two chi-square tests. The 2 × 2 chi-square was = 3.92. The 2 × 3 chi-square was = 5.92. Which chi-square test resulted in a decision to reject the null hypothesis at a .05 level of significance?
the 2 × 2 chi-square
A local ice cream shop wants to see if they should promote a new swizzleberry swirl or creamsicle flavored drink. In order to determine which one to promote, they took a sample of 80 patrons and asked them to choose which they preferred. The one that is significantly preferred over the other (at a .05 level of significance) will be promoted. It is expected that an equal number of patrons will choose each flavor. Based on the observed frequencies given below, what is the decision for this test?
promote the creamsicle flavored drink
A researcher computes a 2 × 4 chi-square test for independence. What are the degrees of freedom for this test?
3
To appropriately interpret the chi-square goodness-of-fit test, it is necessary to compare differences ______
at each level of the categorical variable
A researcher tests whether job security and life satisfaction are related. In this study, he observes the following frequencies. If he computes a test for independence at a .05 level of significance, then what is the decision for this test?
Job security and job satisfaction are independent.
A researcher reports the following results for a chi-square test for independence: (1) = 5.386, p < .05 (V = .22). What is the maximum number of levels that an independent variable could have had?
2
One way a researcher can correct for having expected frequencies smaller than five is to increase the sample size such that ______.
it is five times larger than the number of cells
A researcher selects a sample of 80 people and records the frequency of participants choosing a low-, moderate-, or high-calorie dessert in a buffet. What are the degrees of freedom for this chi-square goodness-of-fit test?
2
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